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简述有机肥的作用、质量要求、生产原料和处理方法

简述有机肥的作用、质量要求、生产原料和处理方法

作者:
来源:
发布时间:
2019/09/04
浏览量

1有机肥的概念

 

在GB/T6274-2016《肥料和土壤调理剂术语》中对肥料的定义是:以提供植物养分为主要功效的物料。如此看来,肥料的范围是很大的,类别也是很多的。从该国家标准可以看出有机肥料(organicfertilizer)和无机肥料(inorganic fertilizer)是对应的,而且该国家标准中对矿物肥料(mineral fertilizer)和无机肥料(inorganic fertilizer)的定义是同一个:由提取、物理和/或化学工业方法制成的,标明养分呈无机盐形式的肥料。该国家标准对于传统意义上统称的化肥却没有对应的术语和定义。

YOUJIFEIDEGAINIANZUIZAOZAIXIANGGUANXINGYEBIAOZHUNFABUZHIQIANSHIDUIYINGHUAFEIDEGAINIANTICHUDE,DANGSHIHANGAIDEWULIAOFANWEISHIFENGUANGFAN,BAOKUONONGJIAFEI、DUIOUFEI、ZHAOFEI、JIUFEI、LVFEI、JIEGANFEI、BINGFEI、NIFEI、FUZHISUANLEIFEIDENG。LVFEIBAOKUOLVDOU、CANDOU、MUXU、HEIMAICAO、FEITIANLUO、XIAOKUIZI、MANJIANGHONG、SHUIHULU、SHUIHUASHENGDENGZUOWU;BINGFEIBAOKUOCAIZI、MIANZI、DOUBING、ZHIMABING、BIMABING、CHAZIBINGDENG;NIFEIBAOKUOWEIJINGWURANDEHENI、TANGNI、GOUNI、HUNIDENG。

 

SHANGSHUZHEIXIEFEIHUAFEIDEFEILIAOTONGCHENGWEIYOUJIFEI。CONG2002NIANFABUYOUJIFEILIAODEXINGYEBIAOZHUNKAISHI,JIUDUIYOUJIFEILIAOYOULEMINGQUEDEDINGYI。YOUJIFEILIAODENONGYEXINGYEBIAOZHUNZIFABUYILAIYIJINGGUO3CIXIUDINGHEZHONGXINFABU。FENBIESHINY525-2002《YOUJIFEILIAO》、NY525-2011《YOUJIFEILIAO》HENY525-2012《YOUJIFEILIAO》。ZAIZUIXINDEYOUJIFEILIAOXINGYEBIAOZHUNZHONGDUIYOUJIFEILIAO(organic fertilizer)DEDINGYISHI:ZHUYAOLAIYUANYUZHIWUHE(HUO)DONGWU,JINGGUOFAJIAOFUSHUDEHANTANYOUJIWULIAO,QIGONGNENGSHIGAISHANTURANGFEILI、TIGONGZHIWUYINGYANG、TIGAOZUOWUPINZHI。YOUJIFEILIAOMUQIANSHANGMEIYOUFABUGUOJIABIAOZHUN。ZAIYOUJIFEIXINGYEBIAOZHUNDEJICHUSHANG,NONGYEBUYOUFABULESHENGWUYOUJIFEIXINGYEBIAOZHUNNY 884-2004,QIZHONGDUISHENGWUYOUJIFEIDEDINGYISHI:ZHITEDINGGONGNENGWEISHENGWUYUZHUYAOYIDONGZHIWUCANTI(RUCHUQINFENBIAN、NONGZUOWUJIEGAN)WEILAIYUANBINGJINGWUHAIHUACHULI、FUSHUDEYOUJIWULIAOFUHEERCHENGDEYILEIJIANJUWEISHENGWUFEILIAOHEYOUJIFEIXIAOYINGDEFEILIAO。KEYIKANCHUYOUJIFEIYUSHENGWUYOUJIFEICONGGAINIANSHANGJUYOUYIDINGDEJIAOCHAZHONGDIE。

 

RUHEGUILEIHEHUAFENANMUQIANDEXINGYEBIAOZHUNLAIJIANG,BINGBUSHIFENQINGXI。OUMEIGUOJIADUIYOUJIFEIDEDINGYIMEIYOULEISIWOGUOXINGYEBIAOZHUNDEDANDUDEGUIFANXINGWENJIAN,ZHIZAIYOUJINONGYEFAGUIHUOBIAOZHUNZHONGGUIFANLETURANGPEIFEIHEGAILIANGWUZHI。ZAIFAGUIZHONGJICHUYOUJINONGYEYUNXUSHIYONGDETURANGPEIFEIHEGAILIANGWUZHIDELIEBIAO,BINGJICHUXIANGYINGDEPINGJIAZHUNZE。

 

2有机肥的质量要求

 

开心棋牌 NY525-2012《YOUJIFEILIAO》ZHONGDUIYOUJIFEIDEZHILIANGCONGWAIGUAN、CHENGFEN、YOUHAIWUZHIXIANLIANGDENG3GEFANGMIANJINXINGGUIFAN。SHOUXIAN,WAIGUANYAOQIUYANSEWEIHESEHUOHUIHESE,FENZHUANGHUOLIZHUANG,JUNYUN,WUECHOU,WUJIXIEZAZHI;QICI,CHENGFENYAOQIUQIYOUJIZHIDEZHILIANGFENSHU(YIHONGGANJIJI)≥45%;ZONGYANGFEN(DAN+WUYANGHUAERLIN+LVHUAJIA)DEZHILIANGFENSHU(YIHONGGANJIJI)≥5%;XIANYANGDEZHILIANGFENSHU≤30%;SUANJIANDU(pH)ZAI5.5~8.5ZHIJIAN;DISAN,ZHONGJINSHUXIANLIANGZHIBIAOGUIDINGLEZONGSHEN(≤15%)、ZONGGONG(≤2%)、ZONGQIAN(≤50%)、ZONGGE(≤3%)、ZONGGE(≤150%)DEYAOQIU,BIAOZHUNZHONGDEQIYUNEIRONGJIUSHISHIYANFANGFA、JIANYANGUIZE、BAOZHUANGBIAOSHIYUNSHUHEZHUCUN。XINGYEBIAOZHUNNY 884-2004《SHENGWUYOUJIFEI》DUISHENGWUYOUJIFEIDEZHILIANGCONGWAIGUAN、CHENGFEN、YOUHAIWUZHIXIANLIANGDENG3GEFANGMIANJINXINGGUIFAN。WAIGUANYAOQIUYESHIFENJICHANPINSONGSAN、WUECHOUWEI;KELICHANPINWUMINGXIANJIXIEZAZHI、DAXIAOJUNYUN,WUFUBAIWEI;JISHUZHIBIAOCONGYOUXIAOHUOJUNSHU、YOUJIZHIHANLIANG、SHUIFEN、pH、FENDACHANGJUNQUNSHU、HUICHONGLUANSIWANGLV、YOUXIAOQIDENGJIFANGMIANJINXINGGUIFAN;SHEN、GONG、QIAN、GE、GEDENGZHONGJINSHUXIANZHIYINGFUHENY/T 798-2004《FUHEWEISHENGWUFEILIAO》DEGUIDING。

3有机肥的作用简述

 

可以看出,有机肥是动物排泄物、植物残枝等废弃物经过无害化处理、发酵腐熟沤制而成的含有可以补充土壤养分的物质的产品,有机肥不仅含有植物生长所需的各种营养元素,同时含有有机质、多种氨基酸和腐殖质等,养分均衡,被称为缓释性的完全肥料。我国有机肥资源丰富,种类繁多,主要包括:人粪尿、畜禽粪便、沤肥、沼气肥、绿肥、秸秆、蚕砂、饼肥、泥土肥(沟泥、河泥、塘泥等)、草炭、风化煤与腐殖酸肥料、草木灰、骨粉、食品加工废渣、肉类加工废弃物、有机生活垃圾及城市污泥等

ZHANGQISHIYONGYOUJIFEIKEYIYOUXIAOSHUSONGTURANG,FANGZHITURANGBANJIE,CUJINNONGZUOWUSHENGZHANG[4],YEKEYIGAISHANTURANGWEIHUANJING,GAIBIANTURANGWEISHENGWUQUNLUOZUCHENG,CUJINTURANGZHONGYOUYIJUNDEXINGCHENG,TIGAOZUOWUKANGBINGCHONGHAIDENENGLI[5-9]。RUOZHANGQIBUHELISHIYONGHUAFEI,YOUJIFEISHULIANGBUZUQIESHIYONGBUJUNHENG,HUIZAOCHENGBUFENNONGTIANGELEIYANGFENBILISHIDIAO,ZHISHINONGTIANSHENGTAIHUANJING、TURANGLIHUAXINGZHUANGHETURANGWEISHENGWUQUXISHOUDAOBUTONGCHENGDUDEPOHUAI,ZAIYIDINGCHENGDUYINGXIANGNONGCHANPINANQUAN。YOUJIFEISHIJINENGXIANGNONGZUOWUTIGONGDUOZHONGWUJIYANGFENHEYOUJIYANGFEN,YOUNENGPEIFEIGAILIANGTURANGDEYILEIFEILIAO。YINCI,YOUJIFEIZAIWOGUOSHIXIANNONGYEKECHIXUFAZHANZHONGJUYOUZHONGYAODEZHANLVEDIWEI。JINNIANLAI,SUIZHEZHONGGUOLVSE、YOUZHI、GAOXIAO、JIANKANG、HUANBAODEXINXINGNONGYEHEZIYUANJIEYUEXING、HUANJINGYOUHAOXINGSHEHUIDEKUAISUFAZHAN,YOUJIFEILIAODASHOUQINGLAI,YIZHUBUCHENGWEIWOGUOFEILIAOYESHENGCHANHEXIAOSHOUDEREDIAN。YOUJIFEIDETUIGUANGYINGYONGBUJINSHIKEXUESHIFEIDEYANSHENHEGENGDISHENGCHANLITISHENGDEZHONGYAOCUOSHI,YESHISHEHUIZHUYIXINNONGCUNJIANSHE、BAOHUSHENGTAIHUANJINGDEYIXIANGZHONGYAONEIRONG,DUICUJINZHONGGUOYOUJINONGYEDEFAZHANHENONGYEBUTICHUDEDAO2020NIANSHIXIANHUAFEILINGZENGZHANGDEMUBIAOJUYOUZHONGYAODEZUOYONG。

4有机肥的主要生产原料和处理方法

 

WOGUOSHANGPINYOUJIFEIZUCHENGCHENGFENFANZA[10,11],ZAISHENGCHANSHANGRUHESHIXIANWUHAIHUASHIYIDANANTI。TONGGUOYUNYONGXIANDAIKEJIDUICHUANTONGYOUJIFEISHENGCHANGONGYIJINXINGGAIJINDEYANJIU,YOUQISHICHUQINFENBIANYOUJIFEISHENGCHANQUDELEHENDAJINBU[12,13]。YOUJIFEISHIYICHUQINFENBIAN、DONGZHIWUCANTI、SHENGHUOLAJIDENGFUHANYOUJIZHIDEGUTIFEIQIWUWEIZHUYAOYUANLIAO,BINGTIANJIAYIDINGLIANGDEQITAFULIAO(RUFENGHUAMEI、CAOTAN、ZHONGYAOZHA、JIUZHA、JUNGUZHADENG)HEFAJIAOJUNJI,TONGGUOGONGCHANGHUAFANGSHIJIAGONGSHENGCHANERCHENGDEFEILIAO。GENJUSHENGCHANYUANLIAODEBUTONG,WOGUOSHANGPINYOUJIFEILIAOZHUYAOBAOKUOSANDALEI:YISHIYIJIYUEHUAYANGZHICHUQINFENBIANWEIZHUYAOYUANLIAOJIAGONGERCHENGDEYOUJIFEILIAO;ERSHIYICHENGXIANGSHENGHUOLAJIWEIZHUYAOYUANLIAOJIAGONGERCHENGDEYOUJIFEILIAO;SANSHIYITIANRANYOUJIWULIAOWEIZHUYAOYUANLIAO,BUTIANJIARENHEHUAXUEHECHENGWUZHIJIAGONGERCHENGDEYOUJIFEILIAO[14]。SHANGPINYOUJIFEIDEYIBANSHENGCHANGUOCHENGBAOKUO:FENSUI、JIAOBAN、FAJIAO、CHUCHOU、TUOSHUI、FENSUI、ZAOLI、GANZAO,ZHENGGEGUOCHENGXUYAO1GEYUEZUOYOUDESHIJIANWANCHENG。WOGUOMEINIANLAIZINONGYESHENGCHANDEYOUJIWUZHI(FENNIAOLEI、JIEGANLEI、LVFEILEI、BINGFEILEI)ZIYUANLIANGYUEWEI40YIt,QIZHONGJIEGANZHANZIYUANLIANGDE12.2%,FENNIAOLEIZHANZIYUANLIANGDE78.7%[15],CONGYOUJIFEIDEJIBENZIYUANLIANGLAIKAN,CHUQINFENBIANHENONGZUOWUJIEGANSHIZUIZHUYAODEYOUJIFEIZIYUAN。

 

4.1YICHUQINFENBIANWEIZHUYAOYUANLIAO

 

开心棋牌 CHUQINFENBIANZHUYAOZHIZHU、NIU、YANG、MADENGJIACHUFENBIANHEJI、YADENGJIAQINFENBIAN,SHIYOUZHIDEYOUJIFEIYUANLIAO。SUIZHEYANGZHIYEDEFAZHAN,CHANSHENGLEYUELAIYUEDUODECHUQINFENBIAN,DABUFENYANGZHICHANGWEINENGDUICHUQINFENBIANJINXINGYOUXIAODECHULIHELIYONG,CHUQINFENBIANDEBUHELICHUZHIDAILAILEYANZHONGDEHUANJINGWURANWENTI:CHUQINFENBIANZHONGDEDAN、LINDENGYINGYANGWUZHITONGGUOJIANGYUCHONGSHUAHUOLINRONGFANGSHIJINRUSHUITIHETURANG;CHUQINFENBIANZHONGDEAN、LIUHUAQINGDENGBUWENDINGWUZHITONGGUOHUIFASHIFANGDAODAQIZHONG;CHUQINFENBIANZHONGDEYOUHAIBINGYUANWEISHENGWU、YAOWUTIANJIAJITONGGUOBUTONGTUJINGJINRUSHUITI、RENTI,CONGERDUIDAQI、TURANGHESHUITIZAOCHENGYANZHONGWURAN,JISHEHUIDAILAIYIXILIEDEHUANJING、WEISHENGWENTI。CHUQINFENBIANTONGSHIYOUSHIYIZHONGBAOGUIDEFEILIAOZIYUAN,YINWEICHUQINFENBIANFUHANYOUJIZHIHEDAN、LIN、JIADENGYINGYANGYUANSU,LIYONGGAOWENHAOYANGDUIFEIJISHUDUICHUQINFENBIANCHULIHOU,JIARUGONGNENGXINGWEISHENGWUJUNJIBIANKEZHICHENGSHENGWUYOUJIFEI。

MUQIANCHUQINFENBIANCHULIZUICHANGYONGDESHIGAOWENHAOYANGDUIFEIJISHU,GAIJISHUSHILIYONGWEISHENGWUZAIYIDINGDEWENDU、SHIDUHEpHZHITIAOJIANXIA,JIANGKESHENGWUJIANGJIEDEYOUJIGUTIFEIQIWUFENJIEWEIXIANGDUIWENDINGDEFUZHIZHIWUZHIDEGUOCHENG。GAOWENHAOYANGDUIFEICHULISHIMUQIANSHIXIANNONGYEFEIQIWUWUHAIHUA、JIANLIANGHUA、ZIYUANHUALIYONGDEYOUXIAOTUJING[16]。QIGONGYILIUCHENGZHUYAOYOUYUCHULI、HAOYANGFAJIAO、HOU

 

CHULIHECHUCUNDENGGONGXUZUCHENG[17]。QIGUANJIANJISHUZHUYAOSHIYUCHULIHEHAOYANGFAJIAO。

 

开心棋牌 (1)YUCHULI。DUIFEIYUCHULIZHUYAOSHIDUIDUIFEIYUANLIAODESHUIFEN、pHHETANDANBIJINXINGDIAOZHENG,BINGXIANGDUIFEIYUANLIAOTIANJIAWEISHENGWUFAJIAOJUNJI。DUIFEIFENBIANDEQISHIHANSHUILVYIBANYINGWEI40%~60%,SHUIFENGUODIBULIYUWEISHENGWUDESHENGZHANG,SHUIFENGUOGAOZEDUSAIDUILIAOZHONGDEKONGXI,YINGXIANGTONGFENG,DAOZHIYANYANGFAJIAO,JIANMANJIANGJIESUDU,YANZHANGDUIFUSHIJIAN[18]。pHSHIDUIWEISHENGWUSHENGCUNHUANJINGJINXINGPINGGUDECANSHU,DUIFEIGUOCHENGZHONGZUISHIYIDEpHYINGWEI5.5~8.0。ZAIDUIFEIGUOCHENGZHONG,pHZHITONGCHANGBEIRENWEIFEIZHONGYAOYINGXIANGYINSU,YINWEIDABUFENXIJUNJUNKEZAIpH 5.5~8.0DEFANWEINEISHENGZHANGFANZHI。DUIFEIYUANLIAODETANDANPINGHENGSHIWEISHENGWUDADAOZUIJIASHENGWUHUOXINGDEGUANJIANYINSU。DUIFEIYUANLIAODETANDANBIYIBANZAI25∶1~35∶1ZHIJIANBIJIAOSHIYI[19]。TANDANBIXIAO,WENDUSHANGSHENGHENKUAI,DANDUICENGDADAODEZUIGAOWENDUDI;TANDANBIDA,DUICENGDADAODEZUIGAOWENDUGAO,DANWENDUSHANGSHENGMAN。ZAISHIJISHENGCHANZHONG,KELIYONGJIEGAN、DAOQIAOHUOJUMODENGWULIAODIAOZHENGTANDANBI。DUIFEISHIWEISHENGWUZUOYONGYUYOUJIWUDESHENGHUAJIANGJIEGUOCHENG,WEISHENGWUSHIDUIFEIGUOCHENGDEZHUTI,SHIDUIFEIGUOCHENGZHONGZUIGUANJIAN、ZUIHUOYUEDECHENGFEN。XIANGDUIFEIYUANLIAOZHONGTIANJIAWEISHENGWUFAJIAOJUNJI,KEJIASUDUIFEIYUANLIAOYOUJIWUDEFENJIEFUSHU,CUJINYOUJIWULIAOZHONGYOUXIAODANDESHIFANG。

 

开心棋牌 (2)HAOYANGFAJIAO。HAOYANGFAJIAODUIFEIGUOCHENGYOUYIJIFAJIAOHEERJIFAJIAO2GEJIEDUANZUCHENG,DUIFEIYUNXINGSUOXUSHIJIANSUITANDANBI、SHIDU、TIANQITIAOJIAN、DUIFEIYUNXINGGUANLILEIXINGDENGFANGMIANDEBUTONGERBUTONG。YIBANQINGKUANGXIA,FAJIAOZHOUQIWEI9~35 dZUOYOU[20,21]。YIJIFAJIAOSHIZHICONGWENDUSHENGGAODAOKAISHIJIANGDIWEIZHIDEJIEDUAN,SHIDUIFEIFAJIAODEDIYIJIEDUAN。ZAICIJIEDUANTONGCHANGXUYAOXIANGDUIFEICENGHUOFAJIAOZHUANGZHIZHONGGONGYANG。YANGSHIHAOYANGWEISHENGWUSHENGCUNDEBIYAOTIAOJIAN,CHONGZUDEYANGQIGONGJISHIBAOZHENGHAOYANGWEISHENGWUQUNTIFANZHIFAYUDEZHONGYAOTIAOJIAN,DUIDUIFEISHIJIANJIZHONGCHANPINZHILIANGYOUZHONGYAOYINGXIANG[22]。YIBANRENWEIDUIFEIZHONGDEKONGQIYANGDETIJIHANLIANGBAOCHIZAI5%~15%BIJIAOSHIYI,DIYU5%HUIDAOZHIYANYANGFAJIAO;GAOYU15%ZEHUISHIDUIFEITILENGQUE,DAOZHIBINGJUNDEDALIANGCUNHUO[23]。MUQIANCAIYONGDETONGFENGFANGFAZHUYAOYOULIYONGDONGLICHANHUOQITATESHUSHEBEIFANDUI、XIANGFENDUIZHONGCHARUDAIKONGDETONGFENGGUAN、JIEZHUGAOYAFENGJIQIANGZHITONGFENGGONGYANGHEZIRANTONGFENGGONGYANGDENG。ZAIYIJIFAJIAOGUOCHENGZHONG,DUICENGGECESHIDIANDEWENDUJUNYINGBAOCHIZAI55~65℃,BUYIGAOYU75℃,QIECHIXUSHIJIANBUDESHAOYU5 d。ERJIFAJIAOSHIZHIDUIFEIJINGGUOYIJIFAJIAOHOU,WEISHENGWUYIJIAODIDESUDUFENJIENANJIANGJIEDEYOUJIWUHEFAJIAOZHONGJIANCHANWUDEFAJIAOGUOCHENG,CIJIEDUANTONGCHANGBUXUTONGFENG,DANYINGDINGQIJINXINGFANDUI。

 

4.2YINONGZUOWUJIEGANWEIZHUYAOYUANLIAO

 

开心棋牌 JIEGANSHICHENGSHUNONGZUOWUZAISHOUHUOZISHIHOUDESHENGYUBUFEN,SHIYIZHONGKEZAISHENGDESHENGWUZHIZIYUAN,DANMUQIANDALIANGDEJIEGANBEIFENSHAOHUODIUQI,BUDANZAOCHENGYANZHONGDEHUANJINGWURAN,ERQIELANGFEILEBAOGUIDEYOUJIFEIZIYUAN。YINCI,JIAQIANGNONGZUOWUJIEGANZIYUANDEKAIFALIYONGSHISHIXIANJIEGANZIYUANHUADEYIZHONGTUJING。ZUOWUJIEGANHAITIANSHIDANGJINSHIJIESHANGPUBIANZHONGSHIHEYINGYONGDEYIXIANGPEIFEIDILIDEZENGCHANCUOSHI,JIJIESHENGFEILIAOFEI,BIANFEIWEIBAO,YOUBIMIANLEFENSHAO,SHIDIANXINGDEDITANNONGYECUOSHI。JIZHONGCHANGJIANDEJIEGANFEILIAOHUAJISHUBAOKUOZHIJIEHAITIAN、FENSHAOHAITIAN、DUIOUHAITIAN、GUOFUHAITIANHEDUIFEIHAITIAN[24]。MUQIANCAIYONGJIAODUODESHIJIEGANDUIFEIJISHUDEYOUDIANSHI:

 

(1)ZAIJIEGANDUIJI、FUSHUDEGUOCHENGZHONG,CHANSHENGDEGAOWENKESHASIDABUFENBINGJUNHEHAICHONG,JIANQINGBINGYUANJISHU,JIANGDICHONGKOUMIDU,HAIKEYICHANSHENGYIXIEYOUYIWEISHENGWU,CONGERJIANQINGZUOWUBINGHAI、CHONGHAIHECAOHAIDEFASHENG。TONGSHI,HAIJUYOUJIEJUEZHONGCHA、GUDAN、JIELINJIA、GAISHANNONGZUOWUPINZHIDENGDUOZHONGGONGXIAO,SHIHEZAINONGCUNDAFANWEITUIGUANG。

 

(2)ZAIJIEGANDUIJI、FUSHUDEGUOCHENGZHONG,YIFENJIEDEYOUJIWUDABUFENBEIFENJIE,DUIFEIHAITIANHOUBUHUIZAOCHENGSHAOGEN、NONGZUOWUSIWANGDENGXIANXIANG。MUQIANDALIFAZHANDESHENGWUJIEGANFANYINGDUIJISHUSHILIYONGGAOWENXINGJUNZHONGZHIJIJIANGJIEGANSUDUIOUCHENGGAOXIAO、YOUZHIYOUJIFEI,YIFANGMIANJIANGJIEGANXIANWEIKUAISUFENJIE,TIGAONONGTIANERYANGHUATANHANLIANG,GAISHANNONGTIANXIAOQIHOU;LINGYIFANGMIANXINGCHENGDALIANGJUNTIDANBAI,BEIZHIWUXISHOUHUOZHUANHUAWEIFUZHIZHI,ZENGJIALETURANGYOUJIZHI。

 

5有机肥生产的技术要点

 

ZAIYOUJIFEISHIJIDESHENGCHANGUOCHENGZHONG,HENDUOJISHUSHIJIEHESHIYONGDE,ERQIEGEZHONGJISHUDEJIAOFASUIRANBUTONG,YOUXIEHEXINDEJISHUNEIRONGQUESHIXIANGTONGDE。

 

5.1GAOWENDUIFEIJISHU

 

开心棋牌 CHUANTONGNONGYEZHONGJIFEI、ZHUIFEIDENGSHIFEICUOSHIHUIGUANGFANSHIYONGYOUJIFEI[26],CHUANTONGDUIFEISHINONGMINZIZHIYOUJIFEIDEYIZHONGFANGSHI,QISHIZHISHIYANYANGDUIFEI。CHUANTONGDUIFEIZHANDIMIANJIDAQIEDUIZHISHIJIANZHANG,YINDUIWENJIAODIQIWUHAIHUACHENGDUJIAODI,YOUJIWUFENJIEHUANMAN、YICHANSHENGCHOUWEI。MUQIANWOGUOGONGCHANGHUAYOUJIFEISHENGCHANDEYANJIUYIQUDEJIAODUOYANJIUCHENGGUOBINGYIPUBIANYINGYONG,XINGCHENGDUOZHONGGONGYI,RUTIAODUOSHIDUIFU、CAOSHIFAJIAO、YUANTONGFAJIAO、TASHIFAJIAO、PENGHUAFAJIAO、SHUIJIECHULIJIQIUYINCHULIDENG[27],XIANGBICHUANTONGDECHUQINFENBIANDUIFEIFANGSHIYOUJIAODAGAISHAN。GAOWENDUIFEISHIYOUJIGUTIFEIQIWUDECHULIFANGFAZHIYI[28],SHIZAIWEISHENGWUZUOYONGXIATONGGUOGAOWENFAJIAOSHIYOUJIWUKUANGZHIFUZHIHUAHEWUHAIHUACONGERBIANCHENGFUSHUFEILIAODEGUOCHENG,YUCITONGSHIHUICHANSHENGGAOWEN(T>55℃),KEYIZUIDAXIANDUDISHAMIECHONGLUAN、BINGYUANJUNJIZACAOZHONGZI[29,30]。ZAIGAOWENDUIFEIDEGUOCHENGZHONG,WEISHENGWUJIANGYOUJIZHIFENJIE,SHENGCHENGDALIANGKEBEIZHIWUXISHOUDEYOUXIAODAN、LIN、JIADENGHUAHEWU,BINGSHIYOUJIZHIKUAISUDIJIANGJIEWEIWENDINGDEFUZHIZHI,ZHUANHUAWEIYOUJIFEI[31],HUOZHEJINYIBUZHIBEICHENGGEZHONGZUOWUZHUANYONGDEYOUJIWUJIFUHUNFEI。GAOWENDUIFEIJIEJUELEFAJIAOZHOUQIZHANG、CHULIBUCHEDIDENANTI,SHIXIANLECHUQINFENBIAN、JIEGANDENGFEIQIWUDEZIYUANHUAHEWUHAIHUALIYONG。

 

5.2SHENGWUYOUJIFEIJISHU

 

开心棋牌 SHENGWUYOUJIFEISHITURANGYOUYIWEISHENGWUJUNZHONGYUYOUJIFEIJIEHEXINGCHENGDEXINXING、GAOXIAO、ANQUANDEWEISHENGWU—YOUJIFUHEFEILIAO,FUYIJIEKANGJUNDESHENGWUYOUJIFEINENGYOUXIAOYIZHITUCHUANBINGYUANJUN,JIANSHAOZHIWUTUCHUANBINGHAIDEFASHENG,TIGAOZUOWUPINZHI[32]。SUOYISHENGWUYOUJIFEISHENGCHANJIKEYIJIANGFEIQIWUZIYUANCHONGFENLIYONG,YOUKEYIZAIZHILIWURAN、GAISHANSHENGTAIHUANJINGHECUJINNONGYE、YANGZHIYEFAZHANFANGMIANFAHUIZUOYONG,FUHEGUOJIAKECHIXUFAZHANZHANLVE。WEISHENGWUJUNJIFABEIRENWEISHICHUQINFENBIANDENGFEILIAOHUACHULIFANGSHIZHONGZUIJUYOUFAZHANQIANLIDEYIZHONGFANGFA。ZAIGAOWENDUIFEIDEJICHUSHANG,JIANGWEISHENGWUGONGNENGJUNZUOWEITIANJIAJITIANJIADAOYOUJIFEIZHONG,NENGYOUXIAOTIGAOFEILIAOLIYONGLVHENONGCHANPINPINZHI,BINGKEYITONGGUOXUANPEIDEWEISHENGWUDUIBINGYUANTIYOUYIDINGDEJIEKANGZUOYONG,YIZHIBINGYUANTIWEISHENGWUDEFANZHI,TIGAOYOUYIWEISHENGWUZAIYOUJIFEIZHONGDESHENGWUXIAOJIA,GAISHANTURANGZHONGDEWEISHENGWUQUXIXIANGYOULIYUNONGZUOWUGAOCHAN、YOUZHIFANGXIANGZHUANHUA,TIGAOTURANGKANGNIXING[33-36],YINCILIYONGXINXINGWEISHENGWUJUNJICHULICHUQINFENBIANYICHENGWEIXINDEYANJIUFANGXIANG。

 

开心棋牌 5.3YUANLIAOPEIBIJISHU

 

YOUJIFEIYUANLIAOJUYOUTIGONGTANYUAN、TIGAODUIFEIGUOCHENGZHONGDEKONGXIDU、DIAOJIEWULIAODESHIDUDENGZUOYONG。YOUJIFEISHENGCHANZHONGDEYUANLIAOLAIYUANDUO,ZHONGLEIDUO,CHENGFENFUZA[10,11],GENJUYUANLIAOXINGZHIJINXINGBUTONGYUANLIAOPEIBISHIYANYANJIUKEHUODEHESHIPEIFANG。DUIFEIGUOCHENGZHONGDEYIGEGUANJIANYINSUSHIC/N,QISHUZHIYIBANZAI20-30ZHIJIANXIANGDUISHIYIWEISHENGWUHUOXING[37]。C/NBIZHIJIAOGAOSHI,WEISHENGWUSHENGZHANGDAIXIEJIAKUAIJINERXIAOHAOGUOLIANGDETAN,ZHIDAODADAOSHIYIDETANHANLIANGSHICAIHUIJINXINGXINCHENDAIXIE[38],ERC/NBIJIAODISHI,DUITIZHONGDEDANJIANGHUIYIANQIDEXINGSHIHUIFA,DAOZHIDANSUNSHI[39]。YINCIZAIXUANZEYUANLIAOHEQUEDINGPEIBISHI,YINGLEJIEYUANLIAODEXINGZHI、YANGFENHEYOUJIZHIDENGHANLIANG,YIQUEBAOZAIDUIFEIDEZHENGGEGUOCHENGSHUNLIWANCHENG。LIRUZAIMAIJIEDUIFUSHITIANJIAJIFEN,BUJINNENGGAISHANMAIJIEDUIFEIDEJIEGOU、XISHOUSHUIQI,ERQIEKEZUOWEIWEISHENGWUDEDANYUAN,JIJIEJUELEMAIJIEC/NBIZHIDIZAIDANDUDUIFEISHIBENSHENSUOCUNZAIDEBIDUAN,HAIKEYICUJINJIFENDEZIYUANHUALIYONG[40,41]。

 

5.4FAJIAOJIEZHONGJISHU

 

开心棋牌 YOUJIFEIFAJIAOZHIFUZADEYOUJIWUZAIWEISHENGWUDEZUOYONGXIAFENJIEWEIJIANDANWUZHIDEGUOCHENG[42]。FAJIAOSHIYIZHONGJIEJUECHUQINFENBIANWURANZUIJINGJIYOUXIAODEFANGFA,ZAIJIANSHAOWURANDETONGSHIHAIKEYISHICHUQINFENZIYUANHUA。FAJIAOJUNJISHISHENGWUYOUJIFEISHENGCHANZHONGZHONGYAODEWUZHI,FAJIAOJUNJIDEXUANSHISHENGWUYOUJIFEISHENGCHANDEGUANJIAN,TAJUEDINGLESHENGCHANZHONGYOUJIWULIAOFAJIAODEWENDU、SHENGCHANGUOCHENGDENG。YANJIUBIAOMING,JIEZHONGWEISHENGWUDUIJIAKUAIDUIFEIJINCHENGHUOTIGAODUIFEICHANPINDEZHILIANGMEIYOUMINGXIANZUOYONG,ZHUYAOYUANYINSHIDUIFEIYUANLIAOZHONGBENSHENHANYOUDALIANGDEWEISHENGWUZHONGLEIHESHULIANG,DUIFEIXUANYONGDEWEISHENGWUFANZHISUDUFEICHANG,ZAISHIYIDEHUANJINGXIAJIUKEYIDALIANGFANZHI,ZAINONGTIANYINGYONGJIEDUANFAHUIQIGONGNENG[43-45]。SUIZHENONGYEDEFAZHAN,DUIYOUJIFEIDEXUYAOBIAOZHUNYEZAISHENGGAO,DANYIJUNZHONG、DANYIGONGNENGDESHENGWUYOUJIFEIYIBUNENGMANZUXIANDAINONGYEFAZHANDEYAOQIU,FUHEJUNZHONGSHISHENGWUYOUJIFEIDEFAZHANQUSHI[46]。JUNZHONGXUANZEDEYUANZERUXIA:FUHENONGYONGWEISHENGWUJUNZHONGANQUANPINGJIAYAOQIU、FANZHISUDUKUAI、GONGNENGXINGQIANG、WUJIEKANGHUOBUTONGJUNZHUJIEKANGXIAO、BUTONGCHANPINDUIJUNZHUDEQITAYAOQIU。ZAISHENGWUYOUJIFEISHENGGUOCHENGZHONG,JIARUDEGONGNENGJUNYIBANWEIYABAOGANJUN(Bacillus)、JIADANBAOJUN(Pseudomonas)、LIANMEIJUN(Streptomycete)、GUDANJUN、RONGLINJUN、GUANGHEXIJUNDENG[46,47]。

 

5.5HUANJINGKONGZHIJISHU

 

开心棋牌 DUIFEIFAJIAOGUOCHENGZHONGWAIJIETIAOJIANHUIYINGXIANGDUIFEIDEWANCHENG,ZHUYAODEYINGXIANGYINSUWEIYUANLIAO、HANSHUILV、TANDANBI、DUIFEIGUOCHENGDEYANGNONGDUHEWENDUYIJIpHDENG,KEYITONGGUODIAOKONGSHANGSHUYINSU,KONGZHIWEISHENGWUDEHUOXINGHEDUIFEISUDU。

 

5.5.1SHIDU

 

DUIFEIGUOCHENGZHONGSHUIFENSHIYIGEZHONGYAOYINSU[48],ZHUYAOZUOYONGZAIYURONGJIEYOUJIWU,BINGCANYUWEISHENGWUDEXINCHENDAIXIE。SHUIFENZHENGFASHIDAIZOURELIANG,QIDAODIAOJIEDUIFEIWENDUDEZUOYONG。SHUIFENGUODI,BULIYUWEISHENGWUSHENGZHANG,RUGUOSHUIFENHANLIANGDIYU10%,XIJUNDEDAIXIEZUOYONGHUITINGZHI;SHUIFENGUOGAO,ZEHUISHIDUILIAOTONGQIBUCHANG,DAOZHIYANYANGFAJIAO,YANHUANDUIFEISHIJIAN[49]。ZAIXUANZEYUANLIAODESHIHOUYINGBAOZHENGSHUIFENHANLIANGSHIZHONG。

 

5.5.2WENDU

 

开心棋牌 DUIYUDUIFEIXITONGERYAN,WENDUHUIYINGXIANGWEISHENGWUHUOXINGCONGERYINGXIANGDUIFEIXIAOGUO。ZUOWEIYIZHONGSHENGWUXITONG,DUIFEIZHONGWEISHENGWUFENJIEYOUJIWUSHIFANGRELIANGSHIDUIFEIWENDUSHANGSHENG,BUTONGYUFEISHENGWUXITONG[49]。DANGDUITIWENDUCHAOGUOJIXIANSHI,WENDUYUEGAO,FANYINGSUDUBIANDEYUEDI[50]。GAOWENDUIFEIWENDUKONGZHIZAI45~55℃ZUOYOU[51],YIBAOZHENGWEISHENGWUHUOXINGHEXIANGGUANMEIDEHUOXING。

 

5.5.3pH

 

DUIFEIGUOCHENGZHONG,pHSHIYIGEZHONGYAODEYINSU,WEISHENGWUZAIGAOWENJIEDUANZAIpHWEI7.5~8.5SHIQIFENJIENENGLIZUIDA[52]。YIBANLAIJIANG,pHZAI3~12ZHIJIAN,DUIFEIFANYINGJUNKEYIJINXING[53]。DANYOUYANJIUFAXIAN,ZAIDUIFEICHUQIDUITIDEpHJIANGDI,DIpHYOUSHIHUIYANZHONGDIYIZHIDUIFEIFANYINGDEJINXING。ZAIDUIFUSHENGHUOLAJISHI,DANGpHKONGZHIZAI5SHI,PUTAOTANGHEDANBAIZHIDEJIANGJIEHUITINGZHI。

 

6展望

 

开心棋牌 DANGQIANGUOJIADUISHIPINANQUAN、HUANJINGBAOHUDENGWENTIYUELAIYUEZHONGSHI,RENMENDUINONGCHANPINDEZHILIANGJISHENGTAIHUANJINGDEYAOQIUYUELAIYUEGAO,SHENGTAINONGYEDEHUSHENGYEYUELAIYUEQIANGLIE。WOGUOMUQIANZHENGZHUBUJIADADUIYOUJIFEIDEYANJIUHEKAIFALIDU,DANHENDUOYANJIUCHENGGUOSHANGCHUYUSHIYANSHIJIEDUAN,ZAIYOUJIFEISHIJISHENGCHANZHONG,SHENGCHANJISHUYUGONGYIBUCHENGSHUBIJIAOPUBIAN,HAIMEIXINGCHENGJIAOWEIWANSHANDEFAGUIHEJISHUBIAOZHUNTIXI,YOUJIFEIDEZHILIANG、GONGXIAO、DUIHUANJING,RENLEIJIANKANGJISHENGTAIXITONGDEYINGXIANGDEPINGJIAHAIMEIYOUTONGYIDEGUIFAN,HAIXUYAOJINYIBUTANSUOSHIHEGUIMOHUA、GONGCHANGHUASHENGCHANDEYINGYONGJISHUJIZHIDINGXIANGYINGDEJISHUBIAOZHUN,GUIFANHECUJINYOUJIFEIDESHENGCHAN,TIGAOYOUJIFEICHANPINZHILIANG,CONGERCUJINYOUJIFEICHANYEJISHUDEJINBUHEFAZHAN。

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